For the triumph of the Toilets!


Author – Debayani Panja



On 19th and 20th November, the “World Toilet Day“conference was organized by UNU-MERIT, amidst the brouhaha of the demonetization. Chuckling at the name of the conference is quite natural, but the cause of concern at the conference was as huge as the demonetization today. The inaugural address was given by Dr. Nirmala Sitharaman, Honourable Minister of State for Commerce and Industry. She highlighted the problem of proper sanitation in the coastal areas and the challenges faced with the existing models in those regions. She underlined the importance of the Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana to achieve the goals of sanitation in India and the customized approaches taken by Swachh Bharat Mission to achieve the goal of making India Open Defecation Free (ODF).

Today the pestering faults in the sanitation programs in India are a result of poor models/designs, no capacity building of masons, lack of safe disposal of waste, lack of financial accompaniment, lack of gendered spaces and the humongous problem of behavioral practice to defecate in the open. The major cause of concern raised at the event by Dr. Shyama V. Ramani, founder of FINNISH society – India and France and a fellow at UNU-MERIT University, was the existence and the continuing increase in number of “fossilized toilets” in India. The erstwhile blanket approaches have been mere examples of disconnected governance representing the lack of sustainability and un-suitability of the same given the myriad of terrains of the country. Today, the Swachh Bharat Mission has enabled construction of 27 lakh toilets in the urban areas while declaring 432 districts ODF at the same time it has declared 61 rural districts to be ODF. But the important question we need to ask ourselves right now, considering the quantitative achievements is that, “is it enough?”

Even today, 5.2% GDP of the country remains unrealized due to the backward and forward linkage problems arising from the sanitation issues, as quoted by Dr. Nirmala Sitharaman, like health impediments, water availability, lack of operation & maintenance (O&M) facilities for the toilets facilitated by the government and the lack of reuse technologies etc. In 1986, after the Green Revolution, a subsidy was promised for construction of toilets, but nothing was done even till 1999. Although a study showed that only 2% of the surveyed population agreed to construct toilets even with a subsidy, the promise never materialized.

Soon after, the Total Sanitation Campaign was launched which focussed primarily on the reformation of behavioural aspects to achieve the goal, but due to the lack of a political push, it failed to get integrated in the mainstream of the national agenda. The landmark was setup with the Nirmal Gram Puraskar campaign. It was a knock on the doors of consciousness of the common man, highlighting the shit-to-mouth problems and emphasizing that following good sanitary practices is a public issue and not just a private one. The huge incentives offered to the sarpanch as Nirmal Gram Puraskars became a great push to achieve the goal of ODF. But later researches have revealed that due to lack of follow-ups on the Nirmal Grams, there has been a growing tendency of slipping back from the ODF status after achieving the Nirmal Gram Puraskar.

There are many issues which need to be considered before a program should be launched. A fundamental problem arises when there is lack of coordination amongst the various ministries of the government. As a preview, 60 million houses in rural areas and 20 lakh houses in urban areas remain unconstructed, despite the promise by the government to construct toilet in every house; this raises the question that where will the toilets be constructed if there are no houses to live in. This double whammy highlights the ill- considerate decisions of the legislature. This also brings out the other problem, that is, of the masons. The masons constructing these toilets are usually illiterate and have no training regarding right design or technology to be employed for the product to be sustainable and useful to the beneficiaries. In this situation it becomes imperative to provide them with training or some knowledge in the area concerned. But the stigma attached to the work of constructing toilets in India will only discourage the literate masons from doing that job, moreover it is well known that “when the illiterate become literate the rich lose their palanquin bearers.” This jeopardy was attempted to be solved with the SKILL INDIA program of the government. But with not much success in that, the only solution lies is to make an appeal for volunteers who can learn masonry, teach it and write articles to encourage others to participate in a similar task, which eventually will remove the stigma attached to the work from the society. There is a rise in the number of toilets being constructed but the problem in accessing them, the infrastructure of the toilets and their quality remains stagnant.

Moreover, the model followed in India is of a leach pit toilet or pit latrines. Quality, design and accessibility of these designs/models are highly questionable. Most of these toilets constructed remain without maintenance, often festered with the problem of termites and rodents, many collapsing due to heavy rain and others emanating pungent smell hindering further use and also adding to unhygienic conditions in their vicinity. Inadequate ventilation and lack of space inside the toilets, inadequate water supply etc. discourages many from using toilets. In many places public toilets are constructed for a large population. But most of them are not paid toilets; hence there again comes the problem of operation and maintenance of these toilets. Hardly any of these are friendly to children or the physically challenged and in many long queues outside these toilets discourage people to use them and switch to open defecation. The caste-based problems in the country become an impediment in the usage of public toilets, where people of different castes refuse to use common toilets. Vastu issues, like where to construct, while constructing the toilets are often a cause of bitterness for the beneficiaries.

Even though solutions to the above problems could be found, there are other considerations which can’t be neglected. The maintenance of the toilets is often made the task of the manual scavengers. In many they are even forced to clean the toilets riding on the caste hierarchy of the country. Even the schools are not pardoned from this barbarism, where students from the lower castes are made to clean the toilets, by the teachers. It is ironical, that on one side the central government is running campaigns to end the practice of manual scavenging, while on the other side toilets are constructed without the provision of being cleaned themselves, like bio toilets. Moreover, behavioural change is yet to come by, which will revolutionize the defecation practices in the country. It is a matter of concern, that even today when open defecation is discussed it is usually the practice of shitting which is considered and not the act of peeing in open. We often overlook public urination by men all around the country without even a slightest cringe. Despite the presence of well-developed facilities of toilets, even the urban areas are not free from public urination.

But all doesn’t seem to be lost. Sikkim has become the ODF state and is working hard to maintain that status; Punsari, a small village in Gujarat became one of the 3 Adarsh Grams of India under the concerted efforts of the sarpanch Mr. Himanshu Patel and RDO Trust under Mr. Perumal has taken huge strides to achieve rural and tribal sanitation in Tamil Nadu. These stand- alone cases of success not only become an inspiration but also examples which could be reciprocated around the country for desired results.

Use of innovation is the need of the hour. Local gurujis and local leaders can be used to create awareness highlighting the social excuses of defecating in the open and the need of toilets. Role of SHGs, NGOs and Gram Parishads should be acknowledged and incentivized for aiding the general cause. Community participation and people’s approach to all projects should be maintained not only to enhance the decision-making power of the community in the project but also to generate a sense of ownership and leadership among them. India still has a long way to go, to achieve the holistic goal of SWACHH BHARAT.


My developer is trying to persuade me to move to .net from PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses. But he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using Movable-type on various websites for about a year and am concerned about switching to another platform. I have heard great things about Is there a way I can import all my wordpress content into it? Any kind of help would be greatly appreciated!

Simply wish to say your article is as amazing. The clearness in your post is just great and i can assume you’re an expert on this subject. Fine with your permission allow me to grab your feed to keep updated with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please keep up the rewarding work.

It is the best time to make a few plans for the future and it’s time to be happy. I’ve learn this publish and if I could I wish to recommend you few fascinating issues or tips. Perhaps you can write next articles referring to this article. I wish to read even more things approximately it!

Hello! I know this is kinda off topic however I’d figured I’d ask. Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest authoring a blog article or vice-versa? My site addresses a lot of the same subjects as yours and I feel we could greatly benefit from each other. If you might be interested feel free to send me an email. I look forward to hearing from you! Excellent blog by the way!

I’ve been having issues with my Windows hosting. It has set me back quite a bit while making the next list. This is the current list that I have. I should add another list in less than a week. I’ll let you all know when the next list is ready. Thank you for your patience.

I?¦ve been exploring for a little for any high quality articles or weblog posts on this kind of area . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this site. Studying this info So i?¦m satisfied to express that I have an incredibly excellent uncanny feeling I came upon exactly what I needed. I so much no doubt will make sure to do not forget this web site and give it a look regularly.

It is really a nice and helpful piece of info. I am happy that you shared this useful
information with us. Please stay us informed like this.
Thank you for sharing.

Hmm it seems like your blog ate my first comment (it was extremely long) so I guess I’ll just
sum iit up what I wrote and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog.
I as wel am an aspirng blog blogger but I’m still new to the whole thing.
Do you have any helpful hints for novice blog writers?
I’d genuinely appreciate it.

Hiya, I’m really glad I’ve found this information. Nowadays bloggers publish just about gossips and web and this is actually irritating. A good site with exciting content, this is what I need. Thanks for keeping this site, I’ll be visiting it. Do you do newsletters? Can not find it.

I will immeiately clutcch your rss as I can’t to find your enail subscription hyperlink or
e-newsletter service. Do you have any? Kindly permit me realize in order that I could subscribe.


I am really impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your weblog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Anyway keep up the nice quality writing, it is rare to see a great blog like this one these days..

Someone necessarily assist to make critically articles I’d state. That is the first time I frequented your website page and thus far? I surprised with the research you made to make this actual post incredible. Wonderful process!

I will right away grab your rss feed as I can not find your e-mail subscription link or newsletter service. Do you’ve any? Kindly let me know in order that I could subscribe. Thanks.

Good one! Interesting tips over this site. It’s pretty worth enough for me. In my opinion, if all website owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the net will be a lot more useful than ever before. I could not resist commenting. I’ve spent some time trying to find such infos. I will also share it with some friends interested in it. I have just bookmarked this website. Finished with the task done, I will find some live sexy hot gay cams. Thanks!! Greetings from Californa!

Paykasa, 16 haneli pin kodundan oluşan, daha önce çok yaygın olarak kullanılan bir ön ödemeli kart türüne benzeyen, içerisinde euro bakiyesi olan bir ön ödemeli sanal karttır. İçerisindeki bakiyeler özel olarak üretilemediği için standart kart bakiyeleri 10, 20, 50, 100, 150, 250 tek kart bakiyesi olarak satılmaktadırlar. Tek kullanımlık bir kart olan paykasa kart, kullanılan sitede kartın bakiyesini girmenize gerek kalmadan sadece 16 haneli tek kullanımlık koduyla işlem yapmanıza olanak sağlamaktadır.

Hey! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any problems with hackers? My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing a few months of hard work due to no back up. Do you have any solutions to protect against hackers?

This is the right web site for anyone who really
wants to understand tthis topic. You realize a whole lot its
almost tough to argue with you (not that I really will need to…HaHa).
You definitely pput a neew spin on a subject which has ben written about for many years.
Great stuff, just excellent!

Oh my goodness! Amazing article dude! Thank you so much, However
I am going through difficulties with your RSS.
I don’t know tthe reason why I cannot join it. Is there anyone else having identical RSS
problems? Anyone who knows the answer can you kindly respond?

Can I simply say what a relief to seek out someone who actually is aware of what theyre talking about on the internet. You definitely know learn how to convey a difficulty to mild and make it important. More folks must learn this and understand this facet of the story. I cant consider youre not more widespread since you undoubtedly have the gift.

I’m really enjoying the design and layout of your blog. It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more enjoyable for me to come here and visit more often. Did you hire out a developer to create your theme? Excellent work!

What i don’t understood is actually how you’re not actually much more well-liked than you might be now. You are so intelligent. You realize therefore significantly relating to this subject, made me personally consider it from numerous varied angles. Its like women and men aren’t fascinated unless it is one thing to accomplish with Lady gaga! Your own stuffs great. Always maintain it up!

I live in Costa Rica and am about to publish a community newspaper, what are the steps to go about copyrighting the name and articles published in it? And also when can one start using the copyright symbol?.

There’s nothing hotter in this entire world than seeing two girls make sweet love. Seeing a girl face deep in pussy is a dream come true. Dreams have a way of turning into reality at This site is dedicated to stepsisters who love to lick and finger each other. You always knew stepsisters did this sort of thing with each other. You just never seen it with your own eyes until now!

Hi, i read your blog occasionally and i own a similar one and i was just curious if you get a lot of spam responses? If so how do you reduce it, any plugin or anything you can recommend? I get so much lately it’s driving me mad so any assistance is very much appreciated.

I haven’t checked in here for a while as I thought it was getting boring, but the last few posts are great quality so I guess I’ll add you back to my daily bloglist. You deserve it my friend 🙂

hello!,I like your writing very much! share we communicate more about your article on AOL? I need a specialist on this area to solve my problem. Maybe that’s you! Looking forward to see you.

Heya i am for the first time here. I came across this board and I
fiind It truly useful & it helped mme out much. I
hope to give something back and aid others like you aided

Amazing blog! Do you have any recommendations for aspiring writers?

I’m pllanning to start my own website soon but I’m a
little lost on everything. Would you ppropose starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? Theree are so many options out there that
I’m completeely overwhelmed .. Any tips? Many thanks!

We’re a gaggle of volunteers and starting a new scheme inn our community.

Your site provided us with valuable info to work on. You have done an impressive job and our
entire neighborhood will likely be thankful to you.

Are you looking to get laid today? As in right this fucking minute? If so, then you need to check out This is the one site where you can get some action the same day you join. Don’t even fool around with Facebook and those other so called dating sites. You’re never going to get laid at any of those places. There’s all kinds of pussy just waiting for you to pound it silly here. Don’t forget to buy a box of condoms while you’re out today. You’re going to need them!

Hmm iis anyone else encountering problems with the images on this blog loading?
I’m trying to figure out iif its a problem on myy endd or
iif it’s the blog. Any feedback would be greatly appreciated.

Hey, you used to write great, but the last few posts have been kinda boring… I miss your super writings. Past several posts are just a bit out of track! come on!

I’ve just added a fresh new list. This is by far the biggest list to date. I hope you all are having a great week. Take care and happy link building.

Hey there, I think your blog might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your blog site in Opera, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, terrific blog!

Are you sick and tired of being lonely? Why should you not have someone special in your life? Everyone deserves to find love. You can find that and a whole lot more at,2754,2755,2756 This is one of those sites where it’s super easy to hook up. You’ll meet all kinds of girls. Don’t sit on the couch and hang out online all night. Hook up with a chick and have yourself a little fun. Every guy deserves to have a gal in his life. What are you waiting on?! Connect with a cutie today and put a smile all over your face.

Howdy! I could have sworn I’ve been to this site before but after browsing through some of the post I realized it’s new to me. Nonetheless, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll be book-marking and checking back often!

Hey! Someone in my Facebook group shared this site with us so I came to take a look. I’m definitely loving the information. I’m book-marking and will be tweeting this to my followers! Terrific blog and great design.

Hi, i read your blog occasionally and i own a similar one and i was just wondering if you get a lot of spam responses? If so how do you prevent it, any plugin or anything you can recommend? I get so much lately it’s driving me mad so any support is very much appreciated.

I will immediately grab your rss feed as I can not to find your e-mail subscription hyperlink or e-newsletter service. Do you have any? Please permit me realize in order that I may subscribe. Thanks.

Cool info! Interesting tips over this web. It is pretty worth enough for me. In my opinion, if all webmasters and bloggers made good content as you did, the net will be much more useful than ever before. I could not resist commenting. I ‘ve spent 2 hours looking for such informations. I will also share it with a couple of friends interested in it. I have just bookmarked this web. Now with the job done, I going to visit some online homo cams. Thank you very much!! Greetings from San Francisco!

naturally like your web-site however you have to test the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling problems and I to find it very bothersome to inform the truth then again I?¦ll surely come again again.

Hello! I know this is kinda off topic however , I’d figured I’d ask. Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest writing a blog post or vice-versa? My site addresses a lot of the same topics as yours and I think we could greatly benefit from each other. If you are interested feel free to shoot me an e-mail. I look forward to hearing from you! Fantastic blog by the way!

Please let me know if you’re looking for a author for your blog. You have some really good posts and I think I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d absolutely love to write some content for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please send me an e-mail if interested. Cheers!

I intended to create you a tiny word to help say thanks over again with the beautiful basics you’ve discussed in this case. It has been so extremely open-handed with you to offer freely all a lot of people would’ve offered for sale as an e book to generate some cash for their own end, principally now that you could possibly have done it in case you wanted. The pointers also acted to become great way to recognize that other people online have a similar keenness like my personal own to figure out whole lot more related to this issue. I am sure there are a lot more pleasurable opportunities in the future for many who read through your website.

Heya just wanted to give you a quick heads up and let you know a few of the images aren’t loading correctly. I’m not sure why but I think its a linking issue. I’ve tried it in two different browsers and both show the same results.

Are you the type of guy who likes to look at fat girls naked? If so, then,2754,2755,2756 is the site you’ve been searching for. It’s full of nothing but sexy fat women. These big beautiful women are exactly what your eyeballs have been begging to see. Don’t be surprised if you pop a boner while looking at these hefty honeys. They’re full of curves and are exactly what your penis likes.

Wonderful items from you, man. I have consider your stuff prior to and you’re simply too wonderful. I really like what you have bought here, certainly like what you are stating and the way through which you say it. You are making it entertaining and you continue to care for to keep it smart. I cant wait to read far more from you. This is actually a terrific web site.

Hi would you mind stating which blog platform you’re using? I’m going to start my own blog soon but I’m having a hard time choosing between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal. The reason I ask is because your layout seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for something unique. P.S Apologies for getting off-topic but I had to ask!

Hello! I could have sworn I’ve been to this blog before but after browsing through some of the post I realized it’s new to me. Anyways, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll be book-marking and checking back frequently!

I’m really loving the theme/design of your blog. Do you ever run into any web browser compatibility issues? A small number of my blog visitors have complained about my blog not working correctly in Explorer but looks great in Firefox. Do you have any advice to help fix this problem?

There are some attention-grabbing deadlines in this article however I don’t know if I see all of them center to heart. There’s some validity however I will take maintain opinion till I look into it further. Good article , thanks and we want extra! Added to FeedBurner as properly

What’s Happening i am new to this, I stumbled upon this I have discovered It absolutely useful and it has aided me out loads. I’m hoping to give a contribution & aid different users like its helped me. Good job.

hey there and thank you in your information – I have certainly picked up anything new from proper here. I did on the other hand expertise a few technical issues using this site, since I experienced to reload the web site a lot of times prior to I could get it to load properly. I have been pondering if your web hosting is OK? No longer that I am complaining, but sluggish loading circumstances instances will very frequently impact your placement in google and can damage your quality ranking if advertising and ***********|advertising|advertising|advertising and *********** with Adwords. Well I am adding this RSS to my e-mail and could look out for much extra of your respective exciting content. Make sure you update this again soon..

Throughout the great design of things you get a B+ just for hard work. Exactly where you actually misplaced me ended up being in the specifics. As as the maxim goes, details make or break the argument.. And it couldn’t be much more correct right here. Having said that, allow me tell you exactly what did deliver the results. The writing is certainly highly powerful and that is most likely the reason why I am taking an effort to comment. I do not make it a regular habit of doing that. Next, although I can certainly notice the jumps in logic you come up with, I am not sure of just how you appear to unite the ideas which help to make the actual conclusion. For now I will, no doubt yield to your issue however hope in the foreseeable future you actually link the dots better.

My spouse and I totally like your blog and find a lot of your articles to be precisely what I am interested in. Do you offer people to write material for you? I wouldn’t mind composing an article relating to luck patcher apk or on some of the things you write about on this site. Awesome information site!

seo uzmanı olarak şirketimiz php seo hizmeti vermektedir günümüz ortamında site sahiplerinin php bilgisi nekadar iyi olsada php seo metotları arama motorlarında optimize edilmesi gereken hususlardan bir tanesi web siteniz nekadar iyi olsada arama motorlarına duyarlı olmasına özen gösterin. php seo uzmanlarımızdan destek alabilirsiniz sitenizi aramotorlarına duyarlı hale geçirelim.

Its like you read my mind! You seem to know a lot about this, like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you can do with a few pics to drive the message home a little bit, but instead of that, this is wonderful blog. An excellent read. I will certainly be back.

Write more, thats all I have too say. Literally, it
seems as though you relied on the video to make your point.

Yoou definitely know what youre taling about, why waste your intelligence on just posting videos to
your site when you could be giving us something informative too read?

Leave a Reply